Wildlife in Palestine


Arum palaestinum as a Food-Medicine

A numerous records and a vibrant future


exhibit toxicity consequently a ways constrained to most cancers cells. Future segment 1 and section two scientific trials are crucial to totally recognize 

pharmacokinetics in human beings and to doubtlessly display scientific efficacy in human populations

Arum palaestinum Boiss is a widely used botanical in Traditional Arabic Palestinian natural medicine, the place it has been used to give a boost to bones and deal with cancer, parasites, infections, and many different maladies. Recent work demonstrates anticarcinogenic motion each in vitro and in vivo, and that work is coupled with a proof-of-principle mechanism of motion statistics displaying induction of the pro-apoptotic protein, caspase-6. The information to date is strongest for an Arum palaestinum extract that has been fortified with isovanillin, linolenic acid, and β-sitosterol, parts that are endemic to a crude water extract of Arum palaestinum. Safety records concerning toxicity are encouraging. Acute dosing animal research and in vitro studies, which evaluate results on cancerous and wholesome cell lines, 

arum palaestinum

Physical traits and taxonomy

Arum Palaestinum Boiss. is a flowering perennial species inside the household Araceae, additionally recognised by means of its frequent identify as Solomon’s lily,1 and frequently referred to in literature as black calla lily.2 Arum Palaestinum’s membership in the large botanical household of Araceae is sizable from an ethnobotanical perspective, as this household is coming to be considered as a in particular prosperous supply of medicinal botanicals.3

Arum palaestinum is protected in the genus Arum L, alongside with Arum italicam Mill. (commonly acknowledged as Italian lords and ladies), and Arum maculatum L (known as cuckoo pint).4 Species of Arum have been in the Mediterranean place for millennia, and are represented in engraved drawings in the temple of Thutmose III in Karnak as flowers that have been added to Egypt from Canaan in 1447 BCE.5

Arum Palaestinum is recognizable by using its red-brown/purple spadix and spathe of darkish crimson. The association of its leaf blades speaks to a typically used, aptly descriptive title in Arabic that interprets to “elephant ear” ,5 whilst its seeds are identifiable by means of their shiny pink shade.

arum palaestinum

Arum palaestinum as a food-medicine

Arum palaestinum has an eclectic history as both a food and a medicine. As is often the case, its use does not fit neatly into one or either category exclusively, but rather reflects its wide use as a food-medicine. According to Yaniv,5 the de-stemmed leaves, cooked with lemon or sorrel, are considered a delicacy by Arabs, who also traditionally esteem the plant as a medicine for the treatment of cancer, for the killing of worms in animals and humans, as a means to strengthen bones, as a treatment for infections in open wounds, and as a treatment for kidney stones. Additional sources confirm its use as a traditional Arabic medicine in the treatment of cancer, internal bacterial infections, poisoning, and disorders of the circulatory system, and refer to Arum palaestinum as a botanical used in Traditional Arabic Palestinian herbal medicine.6,7, Arum palaestinum is revered as a treatment for skin sores, syphilis, rheumatism, tuberculosis, diarrhea, and stomach worms.5

The measurable anticarcinogenic effects of the fortified extract of Arum palaestinum are accompanied by an understood mechanism of action that could apply across multiple types of solid tumors. 

According to a 2008 ethnobotanical study of edible plants within 5 rural districts of the Palestinian Authority, where preservation of the traditional knowledge of wild edible plants would be expected to be best maintained, Arum palaestinum was identified as one of the species rated highest for its cultural importance, a reflection of the diversity of ways in which an item is used as a food (eg, a vegetable, an herbal tea), and was cited by over half of those surveyed as a wild plant used for a food purpose.8 Consistent with a combined food-medicine use, Arum palaestinum is described in this survey as a food that is prepared by the leaves boiled in water, fried in olive oil, garnished with lemon, and consumed because of the belief that the plant helps prevent colon cancer. Also, in terms of contemporary use as a Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM), a 2011 questionnaire administered to a Palestinian cohort of 372 patients with cancer found that 43.5% of the cohort reported use of Arum palaestinum, making the plant the most commonly used CAM therapy among the cohort.9

Materials and Methods

To identify phytochemicals in Arum palaestinum reported to exert anticarcinogenic action, the author conducted a review of the peer-reviewed literature, using PubMed Central (PMC) and PubMed and the following search terms: Arum palaestinum, black calla lily, cancer, ethnobotany, and Traditional Arabic Palestinian herbal medicine. The author also reviewed the recently published in vitro and in vivo literature related to the anticarcinogenic activity of an extract of Arum palaestinum fortified with isovanillin, linolenic acid, and β-sitosterol, constituents that are endemic to a crude water extract of Arum palaestinum. Finally, the author reviewed mechanism of action and safety data published to date.


As reviewed above, Arum palaestinum has extensive historical use as a food-medicine, with one of the most extensive traditional uses being as an herbal medicine used to treat cancer. When individual chemical constituents from the major chemical categories of Arum palaestinum are surveyed and connected to published literature, it is seen that a substantial number of the phytochemicals in Arum palaestinum show anticarcinogenic activity in their own right. Moreover, an extract of Arum palaestinum fortified with isovanillin, linolenic acid, and β-sitosterol shows very promising action against prostate cancer cells in vitro and in a mouse model. The anticancer potential of Arum palaestinum, combined with other emerging areas of therapeutic interest, such as preliminary evidence suggesting potential antinociceptive properties,47 portends an exciting future in the research of this botanical with an already rich ethnobotanical past.


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  28. Reyes-Zurita FJ, Rufino-Palomares EE, García-Salguero L, et al. Maslinic acid, a natural triterpene, induces a death receptor-mediated apoptotic mechanism in caco-2 p53-deficient colon adenocarcinoma cells. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(1):e0146178.
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  35. Roy S, Rawat AK, Sammi SR, et al. Alpha-linolenic acid stabilizes HIF-1 α and downregulates FASN to promote mitochondrial apoptosis for mammary gland chemoprevention. Oncotarget. 2017;8(41):70049-70071.
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  38. Rosendahl AH, Perks CM, Zeng L, et al. Caffeine and caffeic acid inhibit growth and modify estrogen receptor and insulin-like growth factor I receptor levels in human breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;21(8):1877-1887.
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Impressive Health Benefits of Hawthorn Berry

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Hawthorn berries are tiny fruits that develop on bushes and shrubs belonging to the Crataegus genus. 

One of the most widespread wild trees in Palestine, especially in the mountains extending from Hebron to Galilee. 

Their berries are packed with diet and have a tart, tangy style and slight sweetness, ranging in colour from yellow to deep pink to black (1Trusted Source). 


For centuries, hawthorn berry has been used as an natural treatment for digestive problems, coronary heart failure, and excessive blood pressure. In fact, it’s a key section of regular Chinese medicine. 

Here are nine superb health advantages of hawthorn berry

What would we do baby, without us?

1. Loaded with antioxidants 

Hawthorn berry is a prosperous supply of polyphenols, which are effective antioxidant compounds discovered in plant life  (2Trusted Source). 

Antioxidants assist neutralize unstable molecules referred to as free radicals that can damage your physique when they are existing at excessive levels. These molecules can come from negative diet, as properly as environmental toxins like air air pollution and cigarette smoke (3Trusted Source)

Due to their antioxidant activity, polyphenols have been related with severe fitness benefits, such as a decrease chance of the following (4Trusted Source5Trusted Source):

  • some cancers 
  • type two diabetes 
  • asthma 
  • some infections 
  • heart problems 
  • premature pores and skin aging 

2. May have anti-inflammatory properties 

Hawthorn berry may also have anti-inflammatory residences that may want to enhance your health. 

Chronic irritation has been linked to many diseases, which includes kind two diabetes, asthma, and positive cancers (8Trusted Source). 

  • SUMMARY In test-tube and animal studies, hawthorn berry extract has shown anti-inflammatory potential. Still, more research in humans is needed. 

In usual Chinese medicine, hawthorn berry is one of the most oftentimes advocated meals to assist deal with excessive blood stress (11Trusted Source).

Several animal research exhibit that hawthorn can act as a vasodilator, that means it can relax constricted blood vessels, eventually reducing blood strain (12Trusted Source13Trusted Source14Trusted Source15Trusted Source).

In a 10-week find out about in 36 human beings with mildly accelerated blood pressure, these taking five hundred mg of hawthorn extract each day skilled no large decreases in blood pressure, even (16Trusted Source).

Another 16-week find out about in seventy nine human beings with kind two diabetes and excessive blood strain located that these who took 1,200 mg of hawthorn extract every day had increased upgrades in blood pressure, in contrast with these in the placebo team (17Trusted Source). 

Nonetheless, a comparable find out about in 21 human beings with mildly expanded blood strain referred to no variations between the hawthorn-extract and placebo businesses (18Trusted Source). 

4. May decrease blood fats 

Some research point out that hawthorn extract may also enhance blood fats levels. 

Cholesterol and triglycerides are two sorts of fatcontinuall existing in your blood. 

At everyday levels, they’re flawlessly wholesome and play very vital roles in hormone manufacturing and nutrient transport at some stage in your body. 

However, imbalanced blood fats levels, specifically excessive triglycerides and low HDL (good) cholesterol, play a position in atherosclerosis, or plaque buildup in your blood vessels (19Trusted Source). 

If plaque continues to accumulate, it could completely block a blood vessel, leading to heart attack or stroke. 

If plaque continues to accumulate, it ought to absolutely block a blood vessel, main to coronary heartassault or stroke. 

In one study, mice given two distinct doses of hawthorn extract had decrease whole and LDL (bad) cholesterol, as nicely as 28–47% decrease liver triglyceride levels, in contrast with mice that did no longer get hold of the extract 

(20Trusted Source). 

Similarly, in a learn about in mice on a high-cholesterol diet, each hawthorn extract and the cholesterol-lowering drug simvastatin decreased complete ldl cholesterol and triglycerides about equally, however the extract additionally diminished LDL (bad) ldl cholesterol (21Trusted Source). 

Though this research is promising, more human studies are needed to assess the effect of hawthorn extract on blood fats. 

5. Used to aid digestion 

Hawthorn berries and hawthorn extract have been used for centuries to deal with digestive issues, especially indigestion and belly pain. 

The berries incorporate fiber, which has been demonstrated to useful resource digestion vialowering constipation and appearing as a prebiotic. 

Prebiotics feed your wholesomeintestinemicro organism and are imperative to preservinghealthful digestio (22Trusted Source). 

One observational find out about in human beings with sluggish digestion located that every extra gram of dietary fiber fed on diminished the time between bowel moves via about 30 minutes (23Trusted Source). 

Additionally, a rat find out about located that hawthorn extract dramatically decreased the transit time of meals in the digestive machine (24Trusted Source). 

This potential that meals strikes extra shortly thru your digestive system, which may additionally alleviate indigestion. 

Furthermore, in a learn about in rats with belly ulcers, hawthorn extract exhibited the identical defensive impact on the stomach as an anti-ulcer medicinal drug 

(7Trusted Source). 

6. Helps prevent hair loss 

Hawthorn berry may additionally even forestall hair loss and is a frequent ingredient in business hair increase products. 

One find out about in rats observed that mountain hawthorn extract prompted hair boom and multiplied the quantity and dimension of hair follicles, advertising more healthy hair 

(25Trusted Source). 

It’s believed that the polyphenol content in hawthorn berry causes this beneficial effect. Nevertheless, research in this area is limited, and human studies are needed. 

7. May reduce anxiety 

Hawthorn has a very mild sedative effect, which may help decrease anxiety symptoms (26Trusted Source). 

In a study on hawthorn’s effect on blood pressure, while people taking hawthorn extract didn’t report significantly lower levels of anxiety, there was a trend towards reduced anxiety (16Trusted Source). 

In another study in 264 people with anxiety, a combination of hawthorn, magnesium, and California poppy flower significantly reduced anxiety levels, compared to a placebo. Still, it’s unclear what role hawthorn played, specifically (27Trusted Source). 

Given that it has few side effects compared to traditional anti-anxiety medications, hawthorn continues to be researched as a potential treatment for disorders of the central nervous system, such as anxiety and depression (1Trusted Source). 

However, more research is needed. If you want to try a hawthorn supplement to manage your anxiety, don’t discontinue any of your current medications and be sure to discuss it with your healthcare provider. 

8. Used to treat heart failure 

Hawthorn berry is best known for its use alongside traditional medications in the treatment of heart failure. 

A review of 14 randomized studies in more than 850 people concluded that those who took hawthorn extract along with their heart failure medications experienced improved heart function and exercise tolerance. 

They also experienced less shortness of breath and fatigue (28Trusted Source). 

What’s more, a 2-year observational study in 952 people with heart failure found that those supplementing with hawthorn berry extract had less fatigue, shortness of breath, and heart palpitations than people who did not supplement with it. 

The group taking hawthorn berry also required fewer medications to manage their heart failure (29Trusted Source). 

Finally, another large study in over 2,600 people with heart failure suggested that supplementing with hawthorn berry may reduce the risk of sudden heart-related death (30Trusted Source). 

People with heart failure are often encouraged to take hawthorn berry in addition to their current medications, as the supplement is considered safe with few side effects (28Trusted Source). 

9. Easy to add to your diet 

Hawthorn berry may be difficult to find at your local grocery store. However, you should be able to find it at farmers’ markets, specialty health food stores, and online

You can add hawthorn to your diet in many ways: 

  • Raw. Raw hawthorn berries have a tart, slightly sweet taste and make a great on-the-go snack. 
  • Tea. You can buy premade hawthorn tea or make your own using the dried berries, flowers, and leaves of the plant. 
  • Jams and desserts. In the Southeastern United States, hawthorn berries are commonly made into jam, pie filling, and syrup. 
  • Wine and vinegar. Hawthorn berries can be fermented into a tasty adult beverage or a flavorful vinegar that can be used to make salad dressing. 
  • Supplements. You can take hawthorn berry supplements in a convenient powder, pill, or liquid form. 

Hawthorn berry supplements usually contain the berry along with the leaves and flowers. Although, some include only the leaves and flowers, as they’re a more concentrated source of antioxidants than the berry itself. 

Different brands and forms of hawthorn supplements have varying dosage recommendations. 

According to one report, the minimum effective dose of hawthorn extract for heart failure is 300 mg daily (31Trusted Source). 

Typical doses are 250–500 mg, taken three times daily. 

Keep in mind that supplements are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or any other governing body. 

Therefore, it’s nearly impossible to know the true effectiveness or safety of a supplement. Always purchase them from reputable sources. 

Look for products that have received a seal of approval from independent organizations that assess supplement effectiveness and quality, such as United States Pharmacopeia (USP), NSF International, or ConsumerLab. 

Side effects and precautions 

Very few side effects have been reported from taking hawthorn berry. 

However, some people have complained of mild nausea or dizziness (28Trusted Source). 

Due to its potent effect on the heart, it can affect certain medications. If you’re taking drugs for your heart, blood pressure, or cholesterol, speak with your healthcare provider before using hawthorn berry supplements. 

The bottom line 

Primarily due to its antioxidant content, hawthorn berry has sever fitness effects, specifically for your heart. 

Studies point out that it can also enhance blood strain and blood fats levels, as nicely as deal with coronary heart failure when mixed with general medications. 

In addition, it may additionally decrease inflammation, promote hair growth, and useful resource digestion. 

If you favor to supply this effective berry a try, be certain to talk with your healthcare company before taking it as a supplement.